The Power of Maybe in TypeScript

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The Power of Maybe in TypeScript

In a perfect world, every function and every API we work with would have one clear type that always gets returned. Unfortunately, we don't live in a perfect world. In the real world, the functions and APIs we use might not have something to return to use. We might get nothing back. For this reason, I have created a few utilities in TypeScript that I bring in pretty much any project I work on. These utilities all build on a powerful concept called the Maybe.

What is a Maybe? I was first introduced to a Maybe when exploring the Elm programming language. The docs at Elm describe a Maybe best. This is what their docs say: "This is a type with two variants. You either have Nothing or you have Just a value."

That sounds simple enough, right? It either is something, or it is nothing. Well, that is where the JavaScript world makes things even more complicated. JavaScript doesn't just have a single Nothing type like many languages. Instead, it has two ways to represent Nothing: null and undefined. To take advantage of the concept of a Maybe, we need to simplify our Nothing states as either null or undefined.

First, we need to decide between the two. Because of the complicated history of null and the typeof bug that was introduced in the early drafts of JavaScript, I recommend that you embrace undefined as your Nothing state of choice. (If you want to read more about the bug, there is a nice article by Sourav Debnath about the typeof null bug)

That's well and good for the code you write, but what about other people's code? Many browser APIs return null for their Nothing state and other 3rd party libraries. What do you do about them?

What we need to do is convert the output from these APIs into a Maybe. I've created a simple, yet powerful utility that does just that:

function convertToMaybe(value) {
  return value ?? undefined;

This one-line function is made very simple using the nullish coalescing operator. Let's break it down. First, if the value passed in is neither null nor undefined, it will return the value passed in. If the value is null or undefined, however, it will return the value on the right side of the ??, which in our case is undefined. This guarantees that no matter what value we pass in, it will never return a null.

That sounds great in JavaScript, but I rarely write in plain JavaScript anymore. Most of my projects use TypeScript. Luckily there isn't much more we need to do to make this work well in TypeScript.

First, let's create our TypeScript Utility type:

type Maybe<T> = NonNullable<T> | undefined;

Here we are creating a Generic Type called T. If you are unfamiliar with Generics, Generics act as a placeholder for a future type not yet decided. Generics let us pass in a type, much like how we pass arguments to a function. We are then using the Generic T to pass into the NonNullable type, which basically ensures that T can't be null or undefined. We are then using the union type operator, |, to also allow undefined as an allowed value.

Simply put, The Maybe of any type will either be that type or undefined but never null. A Maybe<number>, for example, will be either number or undefined. The Maybe<null>, however, can only be undefined because null is not allowed.

Now that we have defined our Maybe utility type, let's update our function:

function convertToMaybe<T extends unknown>(value: T): Maybe<T> {
  return value ?? undefined;

In the above function, we added another Generic. We are not just defining a generic type of T, but we are also requiring that it extend the unknown type. And then we are saying our value parameter must be of type T and that the return value from the function will be a Maybe<T>.

I know you are probably asking, "Why are we going through all that extra boilerplate?" This way, TypeScript can infer the types based on the type of the value passed into the arguments. Now we can be sure that any value we are given is a Maybe value. If you have TypeScript, it will make you write defensive coding to ensure you don't have an empty value. Even if you are using JavaScript, the function will help you remember that the value I am getting back from the function might be undefined and I need to write defensive coding to protect myself.

Using Maybe values in your code is very powerful. Your code will be stronger and more resilient to empty values and allow you to fail gracefully in a state you can control.

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